Diabetes is a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than 126 mg/dl. Most of the food we eat is turned into glucose, which our bodies use for energy. The pancreas makes a hormone called insulin to help glucose get into the cells of the body. When you have diabetes, the body either doesn’t make enough insulin or the cells can’t effectively use the insulin that is made. When there is insufficient insulin, blood glucose levels become high, and the glucose left in the blood spills over in the urine with-out being used by the body for energy.
Having high blood glucose over a period of time can damage large and small blood vessels and nerves in the body. Damage to large blood vessels may lead to poor circulation, heart attack, and strokes. Damage to small blood vessels may lead to eye disease (retinopathy) and kidney disease. Damage to nerves may lead to pain, loss of feeling in the hands, legs, and feet, and weak muscles.
Common symptoms of diabetes include:
• Excessive urination
• Excessive thirst
• Excessive hunger
• Blurred vision
• Tingling in hands and feet
• Itchy dry skin
• Sores and cuts that don’t heal or heal very slowly
• Impotence in males
• Vaginal yeast infections in females
Pre-diabetes is a condition where the blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for the individual to be diagnosed with diabetes. Individuals with pre-diabetes tend to develop diabetes within 10 years of diagnosis. Pre-diabetes increases the risk of diabetes and stroke. Modest weight loss and physical activity can prevent or delay the onset of pre-diabetes.
There are three categories of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is usually found in children and young adults. In this type of diabetes the cells that protect the body (immune cells) attack and destroy the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. Individuals with type 1 diabetes depend on insulin injections to live.
Type 2 diabetes was once called “adult onset diabetes.” It is the most common form of diabetes, making up 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases. It begins with the cells of the body not being able to use insulin properly. As a result, glucose does not get into the cells to produce energy. The pancreas tries to make more insulin to try to get glucose in the cell after a meal, but eventually the pancreas loses the ability to secrete enough insulin. Type 2 diabetes usually occurs in individuals who are obese, but it can occur in non-obese individuals as well. Obesity is the most important risk factor in type 2 diabetes, and even a small amount of weight loss is associated with a lower risk for the disease.
Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include older age, family history, impaired glucose tolerance, physical inactivity, race or ethnicity, and being overweight
The third type of diabetes is gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes develops during the late stages of pregnancy and generally goes away after the birth of the baby. A woman who has developed gestational diabetes is more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life.
You can live well with diabetes by learning to manage your diabetes. To Manage Diabetes:
• Make healthy food choices.
• Pay attention to portion sizes.
• Be active. (Get clearance from your doctor before you begin physical activity.)
• Monitor your blood glucose.
• Take medication as prescribed by your doctor.
• Learn to solve diabetes-related problems.
• Reduce risky behaviors such as smoking.
• Learn to cope with situations in healthy ways.
Individuals with diabetes and friends and family members of people with diabetes are invited to attend a series of four classes entitled “Managing Your Diabetes” beginning Thursday, May 9, 2013 from 5:30 until 7:30 at the Trigg County Cooperative Extension Office, located in the Farm Bureau building located at 2657 Hopkinsville Road in Cadiz.
Kelley Dawes RN, BSN, CDE (Certified Diabetes Educator), and health educator for the Pennyrile District Health Department will teach the classes using curriculum developed by the Kentucky Diabetes Prevention and Control Program. There will also be demonstrations of healthy recipes to the classes.
Participants will learn how diabetes can be controlled with diet, exercise and medications including oral and insulin. The participants will also learn the “ABCs of Diabetes” and how important it is to monitor blood sugar, exercise, sick days, diabetes medications and eating properly to control blood sugars.
Register for these classes by calling Kelley Dawes at the Trigg County Health Department at 270-522-8121, extension 212, or by calling Cecelia Hostilo at the Trigg County Cooperative Extension Office at 270-522-3269. Registrations will be taken through Wednesday, May 8, 2013.
Information for this article and the recipes were obtained from “Taking Ownership of Your Diabetes” curriculum written by Ingrid Adams, Nutrition and Food Science Specialist, University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service.
For more information, contact Cecelia Hostilo at the Trigg County Extension Office by calling 522-3269.
Educational programs of the Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service serve all people regardless of race, color, age, sex, religion, disability, or national origin.
Whole Wheat Pancakes
1⁄2 cup whole wheat four
1⁄2 cup all-purpose flour
1 tablespoon baking powder
1 tablespoon brown sugar
1 large egg
1 tablespoon canola oil
2∕3 cup skim milk
In a mixing bowl, combine whole wheat flour, all purpose flour, baking powder and sugar. Make a well or opening in the center of the flour mixture. In a separate bowl, beat egg, oil and milk. Pour into the center of the flour mixture and stir until all the ingredients are moist. Some lumps may be present. Avoid over mixing. Heat griddle. Sprinkle a few drops of water to test the temperature of the griddle. If water bounces, the griddle is ready. Pour 1⁄4 cup of batter on the griddle. When bubbles appear on top of pancake and batter is less shiny, turn to other side. Continue cooking until golden brown. Serve with sugar-free syrup.
Yield: 3servings, 2 pancakes each
Nutrition Facts Per Serving: 190 calories, 4 g fat; 0 g saturated fat; 0 mg cholesterol; 600 mg sodium, 31 g total carbohydrate; 3 g dietary fiber; 6 g sugar; 7 g protein; 2% Daily Value of vitamin A; 15% Daily Value of calcium; 8% Daily Value of iron
2 teaspoons olive oil
12 ounces ground skinless turkey breast
21 ounces fat-free no-salt add beef broth
4 medium tomatoes, chopped
1 (15-oz.) can black beans, drained and rinsed
2 cups frozen mixed sliced bell peppers (bell pepper stir fry mix – 8 ounces)
3 1⁄4 teaspoons sugar
1 1⁄2 teaspoons ground cumin
1 1⁄2 teaspoons instant ground coffee granules
4 teaspoons olive oil
1⁄4 teaspoon salt
In a medium sauce pan, heat 2 teaspoon olive oil over medium heat. Swirl to coat the bottom of the pan. Add turkey and cook for 2 minutes stirring constantly to break up the turkey. Continue to cook until no pink meat remains.
Add broth, tomatoes, beans, bell pepper, sugar, cumin, and coffee granules. Reduce the heat and simmer for 30 minutes or until thick, stirring occasionally.
Yield: 4 (1-cup) servings
Nutrition Facts Per Serving: 410 calories; 20 g total fat; 5 g saturated fat; 60 mg cholesterol; 460 mg sodium; 42 g carbohydrate; 10 g fiber; 18 g sugar; 21 g protein; 35% Daily Value vitamin A; 420% Daily Value vitamin C; 15% Daily Value calcium; 25% Daily Value iron.
8 ounces tuna fillet
1 medium apple, chopped
1⁄4 cup fat-free mayonnaise
2 tablespoons vinegar
1⁄4 cup chopped green onion
2 cloves garlic, minced
2 teaspoons prepared mustard
1⁄4 teaspoon black pepper
1⁄4 teaspoon stock granules
1⁄4 cup celery, finely chopped
Rinse tuna fillet and place in bowl. Steam tuna in a small amount of water for 10 to 15 minutes.
Place steamed tuna in a bowl. Add other ingredients and mix well. Refrigerate if not being used immediately.
Yield: 4 (1/4-cup servings)
Nutrition Facts Per Serving: 130 calories; 3.5 g total fat; 1 g saturated fat; 25 mg cholesterol; 310 mg sodium; 11 g carbohydrate; 2 g dietary fiber; 7 g sugar; 14 g protein